Venezuelan Authorities to Govern All Bitcoin Mining, by Decree

Breaking: China helps Core by stepping on miners?! State Grid Corporation that has issued the decree, in a move which calls into question the countrys ability to sustain bitcoin mining operations. /r/btc

Breaking: China helps Core by stepping on miners?! State Grid Corporation that has issued the decree, in a move which calls into question the countrys ability to sustain bitcoin mining operations. /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Venezuela enacted decree to force bitcoin miners to register

Venezuela enacted decree to force bitcoin miners to register submitted by agentebank to u/agentebank [link] [comments]

Transcript of how Philip the tyrant admin of the Bitcoin Cash Telegram group called Spoice stupid, an idiot, a parrot among other insults then banned her instead of discussing Bitcoin Cash. That Telegram group is hostile, ABC/IFP shills run and follows the rBitcoin toxic censorship modus operandi.

David B., [18.10.20 01:46]

David B., [18.10.20 01:47]
Wut x2

J Stodd, [18.10.20 01:49]
[In reply to David B.]
Their words are meaningless. They have no principles. Wish i could comment but bitcoinxio banned me from rbtc and never told me why

David B., [18.10.20 01:59]
These comments are so toxic

Spoice, [18.10.20 01:59]
In reality, the real continuation of Bitcoin as we all know it is what is carried on by BCHN, BU, BCHD and others

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:00]
ABC is changing the rules to something that is not Bitcoin

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:00]
anyone denying those facts is selling you snake oil

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:00]
If Blockstream tried to take some % to their own benefit, we would have never needed BCH in the first place

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:00]
everyone would have rejected them in a second

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:01]
[In reply to Spoice]
Bitcoin Cash is not Bitcoin to start with, so who cares?

David B., [18.10.20 02:01]
[ Album ]

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:01]
yet we have ABC trying to pull this theft and all those puppets think it's ok

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:01]
JSTodd that's bullshit

David B., [18.10.20 02:01]
Like trying to talk to a core maxi about altcoins

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:01]
Bitcoin Cash is the most Bitcoin out of all Bitcoins

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:01]
it is the continuation of what Satoshi started

David B., [18.10.20 02:02]
Tbh they aren't even toxic

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:02]
[In reply to Spoice]
If the hash follows then it is Bitcoin Cash. Only if it doesn't is your claim true

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:03]
[In reply to Spoice]
Bitcoin is Bitcoin. Bitcoin failed to be Peer to Peer Cash, so Bitcoin Cash attempted to fix this by forking Bitcoin and attacking the root of the problem. This does not mean Bitcoin Cash is literally Bitcoin. Adopt a different argument. Sorry if you bought into that bc of Rogers rantings

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:05]
Bitcoin Cash can replace Bitcoin, and if Bitcoin dies and BCH wins then sure maybe it can take its name from its grave, but they are different products, trying to say Bitcoin stopped being "Bitcoin" and became BCH is a self contradiction.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:08]
Jstodd's got some good points.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:08]
He's learnt so much in the last year ☺️

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:08]
"Bitcoin is Bitcoin" is a false statement. BTC is just an instance of Bitcoin. Bitcoin is the set of rules defined in the whitepaper first and foremost, it is peer to peer electronic cash. BTC no longer fits that criteria. Bitcoin Cash meets them. The fork proposed by ABC also fails to meet that criteria. Therefore the continuation of Bitcoin is in whatever BU, BCHN, Flowee and others will continue.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:09]
What rules were defined in the WP?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:10]
Let's see which rules aren't: 1) No coinbase tax going to any centralized entity such as ABC 2) No throttling of TX throughput such as BTC

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:10]
therefore they both fail the simple "Is this Bitcoin?" test

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:11]
Finally, Michael, if you think Hash rate defines what Bitcoin is, you should stick to BTC

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:11]
21 million coins isn't in the WP

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:11]
I asked what rules did the WP define.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:12]
Because BCH failed that criteria since it forked, therefore your point is wrong

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:12]

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:12]
The announcement of the white paper included the 21 million limit, close enough

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:12]
HIs announcement isn't the WP

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:12]
show me where Satoshi said that Amaury shoudl tax the chain?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:12]
Doesn't matter- close enough

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:12]
Bitcoin is the set of rules defined in the whitepaper first and foremost - You

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:13]
My ears pricked up on that comment, so I'm asking you what you meant.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:13]
Correct. Changing the 21 million hard limit is still more Bitcoin than taxing the Coinbase, yet both will never ever happen. Not to Bitcoin anyway

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:13]
If you meant Satoj's writings pre and post WP then you should be clear about it

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:13]
some bastardized chain might, just not Bitcoin

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:14]
The closest we have to anything to indicate what is "Bitcoiness" is general things like "the longest chain"

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:14]
No, it is never a single thing

David B., [18.10.20 02:15]

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:15]
trustless, no single trusted third parties, and rules can change due to incentives via consensus

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:15]
it is a set of common sense and experiment driven and historical relevance and initial parameters and "peer to peer electronic cash" definition indicators

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:15]
never a single thing

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:16]
[In reply to Spoice]
This is like the exact opposite of what you said earlier

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:16]
Bitcoin is defined by the rules in the WP, I mean common sense.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:16]

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:16]
Nope, the rule set is defined in the white paper should never change, but I never said all rules are defined in the white paper

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:16]
What rules?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:16]
It is a union

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:17]
What rules are there?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:17]
Rules in the white paper + what continued to define Bitcoin thereafter

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:17]
[In reply to Spoice]
> "Bitcoin is Bitcoin is a false statement."
Alas, if we cannot agree on the law of identity, aka A=A, then i dont understand how to hold a conversation with you using logic.
> BTC is an instance of Bitcoin
No, BTC is a ticker used optionally by exchanges. Other common tickers for bitcoin include XBC, XBT, BC (correct me if im wrong on any of these)
> "Bitcoin is a set of rules in the whitepaper"
Super hard to defend this. Theres no mention of a 21M supply cap, no blocksize limit *at all*, and it also says additional rules and incentives can be enforced (implying maybe they should).

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:17]
I go through this with BSVers all the time. We have no spec sheet of rules defining what Bitcoin is from Satoshi.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:18]
Rules such as what defines a correct block, miners receiving the full incentive of mining it, etc

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:18]
The WP is a highlevel document

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:18]
The WP is a description of a scientific experiment

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:18]
if you want to start your own experiment, be my guest

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:18]
[In reply to Spoice]
Valid tx rules aren't defined in the WP

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:18]
just don't try to call it Bitcoin

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:19]
The word majority is in the WP an awful lot wouldn't you say?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:19]
Not valid TX rules, but what a proof of work block is and how it diverts the reward to the miner, etc

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:20]
[In reply to Spoice]
and? what about BTC doesn't apply?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:20]
I'm not arguing for any fork of BCH here.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:20]
It no longer meets the very title of the white paper experiment, "Peer to peer electronic cash"

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:20]
The BTC instance of the experiment is destined to move away from the very title of the white paper

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:20]
It's electronic, and I use it like cash.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:20]
that the maintainers even wanted to edit the white paper (Cobra and co) because of this fact

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:20]
u/Spoice When did BTC stop being Bitcoin in your view? The day Amaury decided to launch the fork, before Segwit happened?
If someone else launched a fork first, they would have been "the real bitcoin"?
This is a game of whoever forks first becomes the real Bitcoin?
What if two people launched a fork at the exact same time, maybe even with identical specs?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:21]
Where did I go wrong?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:21]
[In reply to Spoice]
Did they?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:21]
Doesn't matter if you use it today, its very technical fabric will have to move your transactions to 2nd layers and it will no longer be peer to peer electronic cash on chain

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:21]
peer to peer electronic cash on chain - Not in the wp

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:22]
We have satoj talking about HFT with sidechannels.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:22]
So what?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:23]
I think this is a good discussion Phil, nothing disrespectful is being said. I hope this is ok?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:23]
Doesn't matter, the rule of common sense, which is closer to that title? Increasing a simple variable (Blocksize) to stay on track of the title and experiment, or introduce IOUs and Watchtowers and channels and locked BTC and that whole LN Bastardization? Which is close to the title?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:23]
No one said that can't happen

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:24]
[In reply to Spoice]
Congratulations you've made an argument which isn't an argument.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:25]
The whole thing that was said was the system is based on majority rules, and incentives can be changed. Majority breaks any deadlock.

David B., [18.10.20 02:25]
How to kill a coin 101

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:25]
Logic fails anyone who tries to claim BTC, ABC, BSV or any similar standalone experiments as Bitcoin, because of simple sanity checks and logic checks, often stemming out of common sense - If what you have moves you a single step away from what is otherwise the same old experiment which Satoshi wrote about and unleashed, you're not Bitcoin. If what you have moves you a step closer, it is Bitcoin. and so on and so forth.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:25]
Wow, really fanatical almost religious statements. I guess its Sunday morning.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:27]
[In reply to Spoice]
There's nothing common about common sense. You point to the WP to make a point, and your point isn't in there.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:27]
Throttled and you need off-chain IOUs and always-on services to function (BTC) ? Not Bitcoin. Requires permission to be used and could be centrally confiscated on the whim of the organization behind it (BSV)? Not Bitcoin. Premined (Bitcoin Gold, Diamond)? Not Bitcoin. Taxing the miners through Coinbase and changing the incentives which were at play since day 0 (ABC)? Not Bitcoin

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:27]
simple checks really, yet those who are set to benefit will of course be oblivious to these

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:28]
This whole “Bitcoin Cash is the true Bitcoin - see whitepaper” is really stupid. It also ignores the history of how Bitcoin Cash came into existence

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:28]
Phillip, remove anyone here that has said Bitcoin Gold was the original Bitcoin immediately

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:28]

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:29]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
It falls to pieces the moment it's questioned.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:29]
It is not about "True" Bitcoin

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:30]
It is about the Bitcoin closest to the experiment which always was

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:30]
I don't care about "True" or not, they all are true

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:30]
[In reply to Jingles]
Sorry, I hve stopped reading all the sillyness above. Will reread later

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:30]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
I'm joking around 😂

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:30]
but the rule of entropy says I shouldn't place my money nor effort in experiments which are set to fade eventually, because they have skewed incentives

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:31]
[In reply to Spoice]
You get to chose that for yourself but you do not get to dictate it for others

David B., [18.10.20 02:31]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
Don't read it. You will have no braincells left

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:31]
Bitcoin as we know it has a long track record of incentives which work

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:31]
I won't ever dictate it for others

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:31]
I only would dictate it for myself, just like how I never use BTC or BSV today, I won't use ABC tomorrow

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
only because they're new experiments

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
interesting, and I wish them luck

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:32]
"Bitcoin is Bitcoin" is a false statement - Spoice 2020

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
but I would rather stick to the Bitcoin I know

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
that's all

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:32]
I won't ever dictate it for others - Also Spoice
Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:32]
Bitcoin Cash came with a plan snd goals. They were clearly presented in two presentations that happened before viabtc announced they would mine with ABC software and create a coin and chain named Bitcoin Cash

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
Yes, because he means BTC is Bitcoin, and that's a false statement

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:32]
How is it false?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:32]
It is an instance of Bitcoin

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:33]
[In reply to Michael Nunzio]
you're looking intimidatingly handsome in your new profile picture

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:33]
[In reply to Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ]]

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:33]
[In reply to J Stodd]
actually a good question

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:34]
Anyway, those are my two cents

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:34]
Everyone is free to choose which experiments to pour their effort on and their money in

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:34]
[In reply to Spoice]
You are entitled to your opinion.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:34]
Andreas is publishing Lightning Network books, I mean

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:34]
So to each his own

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:35]
[In reply to Spoice]
Lets leave it at that

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:35]
but Bitcoin as I know it continues with no Tax, and that in my opinion is BCH with no tax

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:35]
Ah you had to continue

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:36]
Good thing no tax is proposed by anyone
Spoice, [18.10.20 02:35]
Isn't this the Bitcoin Cash telegram?

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:35]

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:36]
If I don't discuss Bitcoin Cash here, where should I?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:36]
Tax, IFP, call it what you will

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:36]
from my perspective as a user, it's one the same

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:36]
[In reply to Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ]]
I bet nobody will answer it, either

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:37]
[In reply to Spoice]
Apparently btc /s

David B., [18.10.20 02:37]
[In reply to Spoice]
As a user what do you care?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:37]
Ooh, can I shill the Bitcoin room in here?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:37]
Nah, I prefer quick responses and chats

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:37]
Reddit is broken

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:37]
[In reply to Jingles]

J Stodd, [18.10.20 02:37]
[In reply to Spoice]
Nobody even pays it, it just comes out of the block reward. The block reward is not sentient, it cannot be stolen from or wronged

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:37]
Dont push your luck 😉

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:37]
[ 😀 Sticker ]

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:38]
[In reply to Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ]]
You too brother. 🙏

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:38]
[In reply to Michael Nunzio]
but mine is the same....i need new ones everyone always calls me fat because of this one

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:38]
literally if i say 1 thing to any troll anywhere first thing they say is "ok fatass"

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:38]
i blame this dumb photographer

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:38]
[In reply to Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ]]
Don't listen.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:39]
u/spoice maybe write a article if you really feel you need to educate people

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:39]
David, as a user I believe that each new experiment carries risk with it, why should I take part in a new fork of Bitcoin which has a new set of game-theory rules which doesn't even benefit me, rather it benefits some other entity which will take 5% of any effort or economic activity I produce on this chain? They're also off-loading the risk to me as a usebuildebusiness who choose to join their experiment.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:40]
Why should I take that risk while the Bitcoin I know and have known for over 10 years worked perfectly for me thus far? (BCH, that is)

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:40]
small fees and empty blocks?

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:41]
It will insure that a centralized group has control over development and they are by decree in the code, it's a literal take over.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:41]
[In reply to Spoice]
“BSV-freeze the protocol - true Bitcoin” sounds like more your thing

David B., [18.10.20 02:41]
[In reply to Spoice]
Better run bitcoin core 0.1

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:41]
Imagine if satoshi keyd his address in the code to be paid out of every block, but instead of paying himself started a company "Bitcoin Dev Co"

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:42]
Not really, BSV kills the incentives I am discussing too

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:42]
[In reply to Jingles]
Please stay nice now

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:42]
No one would ever be able to say Bitcoin was Decentralized, Bitcoin Dev Co would get paid directly from the reward.

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:42]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
"BSV: We have all the Bad Idea. On chain"

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:42]
The Nash equilibrium we have tested for the past 10 years will be changed with ABC, it changed with BTC and BSV too

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:42]
"Bad Solutions Verified"

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:42]
that game-theory set of incentives

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:43]
why would I want to take a risk with any of those experiments when I gain 0?

David B., [18.10.20 02:43]
Better run bitcoin core 0.1

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:43]
Nope, you're talking technical freezing of development, that's not what I am addressing

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:43]
[In reply to David B.]
Thats the BTC chain though

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:43]
[In reply to Spoice]
O please share with us your background in the subject. Or are you now just parroting others

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:44]
BSV wants to freeze the technical development and they want a stable protocol from an API/development perspective

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:44]
but from an incentive ruleset perspective, they already butchered the equilibrium Bitcoin had

Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ], [18.10.20 02:44]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
That's one of those phrases, when you hear it you know they are just a parrot of someones propaganda. "MUH NASH EQUILIBRIUM!"

David B., [18.10.20 02:44]
Stable = bad?

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:45]
[In reply to Jc Crown [ I DON'T DM PEOPLE - DON'T GIVE ME MONEY! ]]
I love you

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:45]
Philip, for an admin you are ought to be nicer, if you think I am parroting others you're free to think that, but to state it so bluntly in your position is just... wrong

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:46]
If you think the point I made is wrong, discuss it

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:46]
[In reply to Jingles]
Maybe talk to him in DM about that?😉

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:46]
not me

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:46]
[In reply to Phlip - Not giving away coins]
working on it.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:46]
[In reply to Spoice]
I ought to be nicer...😂😂😂

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:47]
Also, anyone who studied Bitcoin at length and its set of incentives and game-theory ruleset should know what a Nash Equilibrium is and who the players are in the Bitcoin game

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:47]
[In reply to Spoice]
You state as fact. You get to dhow why your statements or opinions are even relevant.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:48]
If it's not a fact, highlight how

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:48]
don't attack me

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:48]
prove me wrong

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:48]
if you fail that simple debate test

David B., [18.10.20 02:48]
How's that breakfast helping?

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:48]
you should rename from Janitor to Tyrant

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:48]
I'm still waiting to see the defined rules as per the wp

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:49]
[In reply to Spoice]
Didn't know this was stand up comedy night in here.

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:49]
I missed the memo

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:49]
If I have to prove all idiots on the internet wrong I would have a hard time. You are starting to really waste everybody’s time. You state, you prove. Or you are just generating noise

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:50]
[In reply to Spoice]
Be careful now.

Michael Nunzio, [18.10.20 02:50]
Noisy bugger.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:52]
Getting close to just do some cleaning up.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:52]
If you can't debate technical points I am making about Bitcoin Cash on a Bitcoin Cash Telegram, and within the span of 10 minutes you called me stupid, idiot, noisy and a parrot, you absolutely are a tyrant and I stand by my point: You should not be an admin here, nor anywhere actually. If you think I should be careful for the fear of you banning me, go ahead. You still fail to debate the simplest technical point and yet claim you can "but can't be bothered to". You remind me of that Thermos guy.

Spoice, [18.10.20 02:53]
How do people with 0 technical know how end up in these admin positions is beyond me

Jingles, [18.10.20 02:53]
I challenged your comments and you just changed the goal posts.

Phlip - Not giving away coins, [18.10.20 02:53]
[In reply to Spoice]
Ok. You are not paying me and you are free to create noise elsewhere
submitted by wisequote to btc [link] [comments]

New Siberian Bitcoin mining center set to provide 100 jobs to locals.

New Siberian Bitcoin mining center set to provide 100 jobs to locals.

13.6 acres of cold and barren land in Siberia will be put to good use with the support of international investors.

The governor of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia signed a decree allowing for the construction of a 13.6 acre data center in Southeastern Siberia. The facility will become home to a number of hi-tech activities, including a Bitcoin (BTC) mining operation.

The facility will be built by BitRiver and is expected to create up to 100 local jobs. It will be equipped with the latest generation of ASIC miners and will take about a year to complete. In addition to cryptocurrency mining, the facility will be used for Big Data and the Internet of Things. The required investment is estimated at 691 million rubles or $0.9 million, to be provided by investors from the U.S.A., China, and Japan.

Siberia is one of the more attractive places in the world for Bitcoin mining. Its abundance of natural resources translates into low electricity prices, and its cold climate means that the miners do not have to spend as much energy on cooling. Is proximity to China, the main producer of mining equipment, should also make the outfit's supply chain more efficient.

It is possible that these advantages will be negated by the legal uncertainty surrounding the regulation of crypto mining in the region, however.
submitted by dibarto1973 to u/dibarto1973 [link] [comments]

If the defining feature of Fiat currency is that it is "by decree" (ie nothing of value backing it), then how is Bitcoin NOT fiat?

Please, do not start rambling on about the wonderful features of blockchain and what not. That's just an accounting mechanism. You could track fiat on a blockchain just as easily. Don't tell me about how it's global, and crosses borders... again, that's blockchain funcitonality, nothing specific to bitcoin.
I'm not negative about bitcoin at all. I just feel we're deluding ourselves and conflating the means we account for it with the currency itself.
Keep in mind, i'm not asking how Bitcoin is unique by itself. I'm asking, how is it not Fiat?
submitted by Mystere_Miner to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Decred price, price and price.

The only thing that actually matter in cryptocurrency in all of the cryptocurrencies that includes Bitcoin and Decred is price, price and price and for the last time price, don’t fool yourself thinking that technology matter because it doesn’t, at least not at the moment. As at the moment all cryptos if they don’t make you money either in satoshis or actual dollars than you abandon that project, Bitcoin has all that attention because of the price and it will get more attention once the price goes beyond the all-time high of 2017.
Now in the case of Decred, this coin doesn’t have a halving so the minting of new coins gradually comes down, as right now that level is at 9.5% yearly for staking by 2024 the minting of coins will come even lower but at the moment you can expect about 10 coins or more for block, meaning that demand can be met so that price will continue to go down. But if you are a holder and staker in Decred than you are pretty much fuck at current prices, because the minting and the fact that only about 50% of all coins are being stake that means that half the coins are for sell or trade.
For holders of Decree they will need to wait some more years for the supply to reach minting levels of Bitcoins meaning that there will be pressure to sell. The people who are selling right now are miners and investor that go for a short profit, whole long time believers are stuck with coins that are less value with every sell there is in exchanges, but we decided to take that risk.
Now my message is intended for those that hold at least the price of one ticket why because they are the ones that are actually holding, why only people who at least hold 1 ticket and not 1 coin, well to have one ticket you need to either have $3000 or about 150 coins, so you have the capital and the intention to see this through.
As we all know ascis miner are being sold and bought in the market the people that buy miners for decred can point their miners to other coins that may be more profitable at a certain time, so in this case miners and stakers that stay in the project or are thinking to stay are my main audience here.
If you already bought a miner and believed in the project you need to stake your coins and pay the electricity out of pocket instead of selling your coins in the market and bring in the price down with your electricity cost. If you are only staking you need to buy at least one miner and take the cost of electricity upon yourself for that miner otherwise the price will continue to come down. So, if you are staking one ticket that means you have at least some money, you could buy a miner put it to work pay for the electricity and don’t sell your coins because of electricity, that way is the only way for the price to increase
You will also gain something else in return those coins that you are mining won’t be listed on any exchange, it is true mining is not profitable but you will get your coins free of any trail from the exchanges, the electricity cost will be your cost for having privacy clean coins.
Now you don’t need to go crazy about buying miners just buy one put it in your house mine decred, one miner no one may noticed it or know that you are mining or maybe they do but they won’t know your address.
Remember that decred doesn’t have a halving so the only way to have price pumps is in news and in users actually locking up their coins, until the supply is less the price will continue to drop if the community together doesn’t do anything and leaves things as they are price will come even lower.
Once privacy options are added your coins will be free from stains and once privacy comes online you will be golden only you will know from where you got them. Mining will help you with that.
Now in term of price as long as Bitcoin continues to go up the price of Decred may go up in dollar terms it may decline in satoshis value because of the bitcoin dominance, so at this point the only price that actually matter than is bitcoin price, because the dollar price will go up together with bitcoin, so the only one that we need to take care is the bitcoin side of things by selling less and staking more, and by mining so that big miners who are actually selling to pay their bills can be taken out of the equation.
The is the only solution to price declining to mine and to stake more, if the same people that are staking right now decided to mine and stake at the same time than the price may go up just a little bit because there it will be less people selling. But know for it to work you will need to foot the electricity bill as well. Staking doesn’t take that much money but look others are devaluing your investment so you need to go balls deep as a whole in your investment meaning those that are staking right now need to mine also at least with one miner for user.
So about $3500 for staking and about another $3000 for the miner and maybe about $1000 for electricity cost, that would mean each believer of decred will need to foot a bill of $7500.00, how possible is this for the whole community to do is everybody else’s guess, but that is what it will take for the price to actually go up and for miners to stop selling your investment.
Or wait for good news, but if prices fall for too long or too far down than price may never recover. Don’t let your greed take fully control of the community.
submitted by francis105d1 to decred [link] [comments] owner using the site as a propaganda site

I was just checking and they announced a network upgrade by saying:
The Bitcoin Cash network will undergo a protocol upgrade on November 15th 2018. Businesses and individuals who use the Bitcoin Cash network should check to ensure that their software is compatible with the upgrade.
Compatible Implementations:
Bitcoin ABC 0.18.0
They are trying to control Bitcoin Cash by developer's decree instead of encouraging governance based on hashing power. By saying "Businesses and individuals who use the Bitcoin Cash network should check to ensure that their software is compatible with the upgrade" they are implying they know the outcome of the miner's decisions (BitcoinABC proposals). This is complete manipulation as they are hiding the truth and showing only one side. The—de facto—official website should explain users how hashing power governance works and they shouldn't lean towards any particular protocol change.

I'm referring my customers to this website but I'll switch gears if they start to use it to promote their particular views and not show the whole picture.

submitted by Maesitos to btc [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Halving: a Harbinger of a Bull Market or Coincidence?

Bitcoin Halving: a Harbinger of a Bull Market or Coincidence?
In this article, we will talk in detail about the Bitcoin halving, find out what it is, analyze how this event affected the market previously, study the theories of top traders and try to understand what to expect in the future. So, first things first.


The mysterious Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto was a real genius, as he came up with a rather smart solution to maybe the most important problem of any currency - inflation. The current Bitcoin rate inflation is 4% per year, while the US dollar 1,91%, the Indian rupee 5,24%, the Russian ruble 4,33%, etc. However, Bitcoin inflation will continue to decrease until it reaches 0% in 2140.
To begin with, the Bitcoins issue is limited, in total, 21 million coins will be issued. As you know, Bitcoins are not issued by any single centralized authority - they are mined. And by analogy with precious metals, the mining complexity will constantly increase, while the reward for the work done will decrease. The whole thing is the correct implementation of source code, as well as the so-called halving, which means that the miners get half as many coins every four years. Thus, by rough estimates, the last Bitcoin will be mined in May 2140.

What is halving and how does it work?

To explain what halving is, let's first understand how Bitcoin works. So, this digital coin is based on blockchain technology, which is a decentralized data accounting book, exact copies of which are located on miner computers around the world.
As you know, each book consists of pages, in our case these are blocks. Each block has its own unique serial number. Miners solve complex mathematical equations to form a new block and receive a reward in the form of coins for the work done. The size of this reward is halved every 210 thousand blocks. Considering that about 144 blocks are mined per day, this event occurs approximately once every four years. This is what is called halving. The short Bitcoin history includes two halvings:
  1. 11/28/2012 the reward for the found block was reduced from 50 to 25 BTC.
  2. 07/09/2016 the award halved again from 25 to 12.5 coins.
The next halving should happen on May 23, 2020, then the reward will again decrease by half and amount to 6.25 BTC.

A brief analysis of the first halving

On the day when the first decrease in the reward for the found block happened, the BTC rate showed a slight movement - the price increased by only 1.7%. But if you look at the big picture, you can see that the asset began to grow several months before this event, and just continued to move up after halving. Thus, the BTC rate increased from 13 to 260 US dollars in just four months.
This was followed by a rollback in price up to $80, but later a real bull race started and lasted until December 2013. At that time, the asset grew to unimaginable values, its rate reached the level of 1150 US dollars. Well, and of course, after such an increase, a tight correction of the price and a protracted bear market followed.
Pay attention to the complexity of the Bitcoin network during this event. The chart below shows, that the hash rate began to increase rapidly a few months before the halving, and the growth did not stop after it.

A brief analysis of the second halving

The second halving occurred in less than four years - on July 9, 2016. This time, the reward for miners fell to 12.5 BTC. It is important to note that the time between the first and second halvings was 1316 days or 3.6 years. Moreover, if to analyze the data, you can see that the market started an upward movement about 9 months before the event. During this period, the BTC rate rose by 112%, and after the Bitcoin halving, it continued to grow till December 2017 and stopped at around $20,000 per coin.
We can also see how the hash rate increased against the background of the second halving. The chart below shows that the complexity of the Bitcoin network throughout the bear market in 2014-2015 was about the same value, but this figure began to grow rapidly about six months before the halving.
Therefore, the miners' interest in Bitcoin has grown significantly a few months before the event. And just like the previous time, the hash rate of the network continued to grow after halving.

In the run-up to of the third halving

As we all remember, a rather encouraging 2018 followed the euphoria of 2017, and the rates of all coins fell down to 90% of their peak values. According to technical indicators and the general mood in the market, we can say that the bear flag lasted until April 2, 2019. On this day, the Bitcoin exchange rate rose from $4,100 to almost $5,000, then an upward movement began. Note that this happened 13 months before the upcoming halving.
Further, the BTC rate continued to grow rapidly and reached the level of $14,000 at the end of June, followed by a rollback and the price held at around $10,000 for a long time. But on September 24, 2019, there was a fairly powerful price drop, the rate fell by $1,500 in less than a day, and at the time of this writing, the market price of one BTC coin is $8,200.
Note that the resumption of BTC growth this year was again accompanied by a significant increase in the hash rate. The complexity of the network from April to September has more than doubled, and it continues to increase.

How will halving 2020 affect the price?

Many market participants are wondering how will the third halving affect the market situation? Unfortunately, we can’t know the future, we can only analyze the current situation, compare it with historical data and draw certain conclusions.
In this article, we take the theories of two famous traders - Bob Lucas and Sunny Decree. They both analyzed in detail previous halving and made their forecasts regarding the market reaction to the next halving.

Sunny Decree Theory

He believes that the expectation of a halving will lead to Bitcoin price rise, as it was in previous times. He uses the BLX index to confirm this theory - this is the most complete history of the BTC price on the Internet, this is data actually from its very foundation.
The first cycle until November 2012 (before the first halving) is not so important for us since at that time Bitcoin was still a fairly new concept. Almost no one knew about its existence, and there were not many exchanges where it could be traded. However, we can use the second cycle as a projection for the third, in which we are now. The key role in the formation of new cycles is not in the reduction of inflation itself (that is, the Bitcoin halving), but trading activity in anticipation of it.
Each of these cycles can be divided into several phases:
  • The first phase, which is not highlighted in color, is the bull market when the price forms a parabolic upward movement and market participants are in euphoria
  • The second phase is highlighted in red - it is a bear market that afflicts traders and most investors.
  • The third phase is highlighted in orange - it is an accumulation that begins after reaching the bottom.
  • The fourth phase is marked in yellow - this is a parabolic movement after accumulation, which occurred throughout all three cycles.
  • The fifth phase is highlighted in gray - this is the continuation of accumulation until halving and a new bull rally.
It to look attentively at the current cycle (that is, the third) we can see:
  • the first phase is a bullish trend up to $20,000.
  • the second phase is a drop to $3200.
  • the third phase is flat, which did not differ in increased volatility, at that moment the whales accumulated coins.
  • the fourth phase - a sharp increase, up to $14,000.
  • the fifth phase - a new correction to $8,200 and the continued accumulation of assets.
This theory tells us about the continuation of accumulation until the next halving in May 2020, which should be followed by a new bullish trend.
Now let's move on to the price forecast. The difference between the high of the first and second cycle is about 3600%, between the second and third - 1600-1700%. That is, each time the profit as a percentage goes down, so the third cycle was approximately half weaker than the second. As a result, according to Sunny Decree's theory, projecting the estimated percentage of growth proportionally, we can expect that the next BTC high will be at around $185,000. Using the structure of the third cycle, we can suggest that the peak of the bull market will happen in the summer of 2021.

Bob Lucas theory

Next, let's look at the theory of professional trader Bob Lucas. He analyzes the so-called cycles. In his opinion, the last four-year cycle (which contained 52 weeks in the drop and 153 weeks in growth) came to its end, it took 205 weeks in total.
Bob Lucas believes that the price we saw on December 10, 2018, was the end of this cycle. It is important to understand that the video in which he tells this theory in detail appeared on his channel on April 2, 2019 - on the very day when the market began to grow, so six months later we can notice that he was right in many ways, but not in everything.
So, Bob Lucas says in his video that at the beginning of a new cycle we will see the incredible power that will rapidly push the price to new levels. Lucas noted that at the time of recording the video, a lot of people are beginning to actively buy BTC in hope on rapid growth.
He believed that in April the market was not yet at the stage of the final bull race. He said that there will be growing up to plus or minus $6,000 in the near future, followed by a tough correction that will unsettle many weak investors. In his opinion, during this correction, the price may even update the December bottom, and only after that, a new cycle will begin, which will last about 150 weeks in growth. As for the final price, he does not have a specific figure, but he believes that the rate of the first cryptocurrency will be more than 100 thousand US dollars.
He stated that a hard correction should happen around August 2019, but in fact, it did not happen. Even though he made a mistake with the time frame and the estimated rate of BTC, he predicted the vector of the development of the situation quite correctly. Recent events are an excellent confirmation of this when on September 24, 2019, the BTC rate fell by $1,500 in less than a day. It was the correction Bob Lucas spoke about, but it happened a month later than he expected. Yes, it`s not likely that the rate falls to $3,000, but in current conditions, it is quite realistic to imagine a BTC rate of $6,000. Indeed, many analysts and experts agree that the “bloody Tuesday”, September 24th was not the final fall, it caused the next phase of accumulation of assets, which will take some time.

Neironix research department opinion

Let's drop someone else’s opinion and do what professional investors usually do - just take the facts we have and analyze them with a cold head.
  1. If to take a look at the BTC chart for its entire history, you can see certain patterns that have been repeated in a cyclic form several times.
  2. These cycles are conditionally divided by halvings, according to the principle of one halving - one parabolic growth.
  3. Even after shocking price kickbacks, the BTC rate never again fell to the values ​​that were before the start of the parabolic growth.
  4. Each subsequent halving increases the cost of mining BTC, which plays an important role in increasing the value of the coin.
  5. Bitcoin Halving 2020 is a very hype event, so in any case, this will affect the price.
Can we predict the future based on this? Of course, we cannot know for sure what surprises the cryptocurrency market is preparing for us. But no doubt that the cryptocurrency market, moreover Bitcoin, has great prospects. Bitcoin should be considered only as a long-term asset, which has always shown huge returns for a long period of time.
But it is important to understand that this article is not a guide to action since the digital coin market is quite unpredictable and it is a rather difficult task to foretell any outcome in advance. Do not invest in cryptocurrencies more than you can afford to lose. If you spend more money than you can effort, then you will not be able to think rationally and survive often storms in this young market. Treat your investments with a cold mind, and then you will succeed.


Bitcoin has already survived two halvings during its short history, and in less than nine months, we will see another decrease in the reward for miners. If you carefully study the charts, you can see that the BTC rate always grows before the halving. And after it, the market goes into a phase of parabolic growth, it lasts about a year, and then comes the correction and a protracted bear market.
A similar scenario has already been repeated twice and many traders believe that we will see a similar picture in the future, since the next halving should take place in May 2020. We observed a significant increase in the hash rate, the number of wallets, transactions and an increase in the rate of the main cryptocurrency 13 months before this event.
Earlier that we carried a detailed analysis of the current state of the Litecoin cryptocurrency, and also analyzed its behavior against the background of the recent halving that took place on August 5, 2019. If you are interested in this topic, here is a link to our study.
submitted by neironixio to u/neironixio [link] [comments]

Weekly news review (September 28-4)

Weekly news review (September 28-4)
Hello, Community! It's Monday again, but it doesn't have to be a bad thing since we've prepared the news highlights for you :)
The National Basketball Association (NBA) notified Brooklyn Nets’ player Spencer Dinwiddie that he cannot tokenize his $34.4 million contract.
As The New York Times reported on Sept. 27, the NBA pointed out that Dinwiddie’s initiative goes against the collective bargaining agreement in a statement sent to the outlet.
Dinwiddie, on the other hand, told the outlet that he intended to better illustrate the investment scheme to league officials, hoping to change their minds.
Per the report, by tokenizing the contract Dinwiddie would have allowed investors to bet — and capitalize — on his ability to play well enough to earn an even more lucrative contract after the second year of his deal. As Cointelegraph reported on Sept. 16, the plan was to enable investors to buy into his three-year $34 million playing contract with his team.

A new association in Japan brings significant institutional support to security token offerings (STO), just months before regulations on the public sale of coins in the country are to be implemented.
On Oct. 1, six major Japanese brokerages, including Nomura Securities and Daiwa Securities, formed the Japan STO Association, a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for STOs.
The association will devise rules and guidelines for the issuing of security tokens. In addition to regulating its members, the group will also take on lobbying duties, endeavoring to develop security tokens as a product and promote their use in the country.

UK police auctioned off more than $294,000 of cryptocurrency confiscated from the teenage hacker of EtherDelta and TalkTalk.
The Eastern Region Special Operations Unit (ERSOU) worked with Wilsons Auctions to sell the digital assets, including bitcoin, ripple and ethereum, in what is said to be the unit’s first such auction.
The department hired an asset management and realization contractor to vet the bidders “to ensure that the assets are not able to make their way back into crime,” according to the statement.

One of three scientists caught illegally bitcoin mining at a Russian nuclear lab has been fined 450,000 rubles, or $7,000.
As reported in the Moscow Times Tuesday, Denis Baykov was handed the penalty by a jurisdictional city court for accessing the lab’s supercomputer to illegally mine the world’s top cryptocurrency by market valuation.
The mining trio was first exposed last February and promptly handed over to the Federal Security Service.

The government of the Republic of Uzbekistan has ordered a 300% increase on electricity tariffs for cryptocurrency miners.
According to a Sept. 27 announcement, the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan has decreed that cryptocurrency miners must pay three times more the existing electricity tariffs.
The provision follows an Aug. 22, 2019 decree from President Shavkat Mirziyoyev entitled “On Accelerated Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency of Economic Sectors and the Social Sphere, Implement Energy Saving Technologies and Develop Renewable Energy Sources” and to further motivate the rational use of electrical energy by consumers.

Feel free to leave your comments in the section down below!
submitted by rokkex to Rokkex [link] [comments]

Decred price, price and price.

The only thing that actually matter in cryptocurrency in all of the cryptocurrencies that includes Bitcoin and Decred is price, price and price and for the last time price, don’t fool yourself thinking that technology matter because it doesn’t, at least not at the moment. As at the moment all cryptos if they don’t make you money either in satoshis or actual dollars than you abandon that project, Bitcoin has all that attention because of the price and it will get more attention once the price goes beyond the all-time high of 2017.
Now in the case of Decred, this coin doesn’t have a halving so the minting of new coins gradually comes down, as right now that level is at 9.5% yearly for staking by 2024 the minting of coins will come even lower but at the moment you can expect about 10 coins or more for block, meaning that demand can be met so that price will continue to go down. But if you are a holder and staker in Decred than you are pretty much fuck at current prices, because the minting and the fact that only about 50% of all coins are being stake that means that half the coins are for sell or trade.
For holders of Decree they will need to wait some more years for the supply to reach minting levels of Bitcoins meaning that there will be pressure to sell. The people who are selling right now are miners and investor that go for a short profit, whole long time believers are stuck with coins that are less value with every sell there is in exchanges, but we decided to take that risk.
Now my message is intended for those that hold at least the price of one ticket why because they are the ones that are actually holding, why only people who at least hold 1 ticket and not 1 coin, well to have one ticket you need to either have $3000 or about 150 coins, so you have the capital and the intention to see this through.
As we all know ascis miner are being sold and bought in the market the people that buy miners for decred can point their miners to other coins that may be more profitable at a certain time, so in this case miners and stakers that stay in the project or are thinking to stay are my main audience here.
If you already bought a miner and believed in the project you need to stake your coins and pay the electricity out of pocket instead of selling your coins in the market and bring in the price down with your electricity cost. If you are only staking you need to buy at least one miner and take the cost of electricity upon yourself for that miner otherwise the price will continue to come down. So, if you are staking one ticket that means you have at least some money, you could buy a miner put it to work pay for the electricity and don’t sell your coins because of electricity, that way is the only way for the price to increase
You will also gain something else in return those coins that you are mining won’t be listed on any exchange, it is true mining is not profitable but you will get your coins free of any trail from the exchanges, the electricity cost will be your cost for having privacy clean coins.
Now you don’t need to go crazy about buying miners just buy one put it in your house mine decred, one miner no one may noticed it or know that you are mining or maybe they do but they won’t know your address.
Remember that decred doesn’t have a halving so the only way to have price pumps is in news and in users actually locking up their coins, until the supply is less the price will continue to drop if the community together doesn’t do anything and leaves things as they are price will come even lower.
Once privacy options are added your coins will be free from stains and once privacy comes online you will be golden only you will know from where you got them. Mining will help you with that.
Now in term of price as long as Bitcoin continues to go up the price of Decred may go up in dollar terms it may decline in satoshis value because of the bitcoin dominance, so at this point the only price that actually matter than is bitcoin price, because the dollar price will go up together with bitcoin, so the only one that we need to take care is the bitcoin side of things by selling less and staking more, and by mining so that big miners who are actually selling to pay their bills can be taken out of the equation.
The is the only solution to price declining to mine and to stake more, if the same people that are staking right now decided to mine and stake at the same time than the price may go up just a little bit because there it will be less people selling. But know for it to work you will need to foot the electricity bill as well. Staking doesn’t take that much money but look others are devaluing your investment so you need to go balls deep as a whole in your investment meaning those that are staking right now need to mine also at least with one miner for user.
So about $3500 for staking and about another $3000 for the miner and maybe about $1000 for electricity cost, that would mean each believer of decred will need to foot a bill of $7500.00, how possible is this for the whole community to do is everybody else’s guess, but that is what it will take for the price to actually go up and for miners to stop selling your investment.
Or wait for good news, but if prices fall for too long or too far down than price may never recover. Don’t let your greed take fully control of the community.
submitted by francis105d1 to u/francis105d1 [link] [comments]

How the Lightning Network could ultimately destroy Bitcoin

TL;DR The LN will incentivize large hubs to offer managed/custodial bitcoin accounts to customers that will be dramatically cheaper and easier to use than real Bitcoin wallets. This invites the kind of financial middlemen and mischief that Bitcoin was created to work around.

Introduction: A successful future with the Lightning Network

The Bitcoin network is currently capable of only processing a handful of transactions per second globally. This is woefully inadequate, and so there is a lot of work being done to find solutions to address this. The Lightning Network is one of the main technological developments aimed at massively increasing the number of possible Bitcoin transactions. However, if and when this particular system is deployed, it will introduce economic incentives that may spell the end for Bitcoin, or at least for most of its primary benefits including both its limited supply and its censorship resistance.
To explain how this might happen, first imagine we are a number of years into the future where the Lightning Network (LN) has been deployed and everything has gone dramatically well. Bitcoin along with the LN now underscores a large proportion of all global financial transactions. At this point, the demand for on-chain transactions would be enormous and so also extremely expensive. Even if the block size / block weight limit were 10 times higher than it is today, the mining fee to get a transaction mined could be staggering by today's standards. Being conservative, let's say it is now $100 for a typical transaction.
In this environment, the vast majority of all Bitcoin transactions would happen through the LN. People could either pay $100 each time they make a payment, or just once to open an account with a LN hub which would enable potentially limitless cheap transactions (with some conditions). Most people would also receive their income through the LN channel, which would potentially allow them to keep their payment channel (their account) with the hub open indefinitely. However, if they do not balance incoming and outgoing payments over time, they would occasionally hit the limit of their account, and need to pay (another $100 plus the balance limit) for it to be re-funded. Everyone will be strongly incentivized to keep the bulk of their spendable money in LN hub accounts, make all payments through the hub and try their best to minimize the number of times they need to close/open/refund their account.
At this point things are not too bad for the end user. Users would benefit from the dramatic cost reductions from using the LN, and would remain in full control of their funds as they can always close their payment channel and settle the balance on the blockchain any time they like (for $100). There are several other benefits, including the privacy benefit of not broadcasting all transactions to the world on the main chain. However, this is not the end of the story.

Economy of scale: Hubs could get very large

Lightning Network hubs will need a fair amount of capital to get going. They will need to fund each payment channel with other LN hubs to a significant amount of bitcoin. The amount would ideally need to cover the maximum balance of all incoming and outgoing payments sent on the channel, from all payments relayed, ever. If that's not achievable, then the channels will just need to be occasionally re-funded when they hits their spend limits, along with the attached miner fees. Hubs that can afford to fund their channels with larger amounts up-front will need to refund fewer times—losing less money on miner fees—and will be able to extract significantly more income from the flow of transactions until they next need to do so. In other words, there is at least a small economy of scale here that will incentivize the growth of large hubs.

Hub-managed customer accounts

One way or another, either by economies of scale, or just by pure exuberance, very large professionalized hubs will appear. Given that they will have a lot of capacity, they will be looking for ways to onboard new customers. A significant problem all new customers face is the upfront cost of $100 for the miner fee and then the total value of whatever they would like to be able to spend on the account. One solution would be for these highly capitalized hubs to offer “managed” accounts to customers where the hub will make LN transactions on their customers' behalf, just like how current banks can make electronic transactions on behalf of their customers.
This would not involve the creation of any new LN channels whatsoever. The hub would only need to maintain a fairly large account of liquid funds available to be spent on their open LN payment channels for their customers. These sorts of accounts could be offered with very little upfront cost, or even for free initially. The customer would even be able to start off with a zero balance, and just have money sent to it later via incoming LN transactions—from their employer for instance.
The customer would then not have direct access to the Bitcoin network at all. Instead, we are back to a situation like the present financial world where trust is a central requirement. The LN hub could try to assure its customers and strengthen the level of trust by issuing tokens of some kind, rather than just leaving its customers with a promise to handle their funds appropriately. More likely though, the hub would just insure its customers' accounts against loss in the event the hub goes bust or otherwise loses the bitcoins. This latter option would mirror the current state of affairs where governments around the world are trying to phase out cash. If this happens, both with these hub-managed accounts and in a cashless society, all you will have is a bank account, a promise from the bank and their assurance: “Don't worry; it's insured”.

The re-emergence of fractional reserve lending

At this stage, hubs would be financially incentivized and able to hold fractional reserves to start loaning out depositors' bitcoins to borrowers. As with modern banking, most of the general public would not be opposed to this. It is quite a familiar practice and arguably good for the economy. It would also allow the LN hubs to offer free accounts indefinitely, perhaps ultimately paying interest to depositors out of the revenue generated from the loans.
Now, hubs that implement all of these features would probably be very large. Smaller hubs wouldn't have quite the same ability or inclination to get into this kind of risky business (and stay in business). Naturally, these larger hubs would end up under the spotlight of government oversight and would move to preemptively register for all recommended licenses. To the general public, these hubs will become the best known and most attractive of the available options. They would have a good strong established reputation, be fully insured, have close government supervision, government approval, and provide a good free service.
Once hubs of this size and sophistication have developed, it would be next to impossible for anyone to compete, much as it is now essentially impossible for anyone to start a bank. As the industry becomes professionalized, all hubs would become subject to government regulation and it would become illegal to start one without first getting the relevant licenses. It might be possible for people in their basements to start black market hubs anyway. And even though they would be horribly expensive to set up and wouldn't make anything close to the profit of the regulated hubs, they might nevertheless continue to exist to help reduce costs for a small number of idealists passionate about privacy and true freedom. The network of black market hubs might end up somewhat similar to the Bitcoin network as it is today, or smaller; essentially a little-known irrelevance to the vast majority of people, but an option to escape the system for those who choose to do so.

Embrace, extend and extinguish

So at this point, the lightning network would effectively either merge with or morph into a simile of the current banking system. Just as gold used to be physically ferried around in an expensive and inefficient exercise to conduct settlements between banks, bitcoins will instead be used to settle between hubs. Assuming that this system takes over completely from the current global banking system, then the mining fees for these settlement transactions might be truly astronomical, say $1,000 per transaction. So in the end, Bitcoin would be priced out of reach of everyone except financial institutions. Once it becomes particularly awkward and expensive for people to take delivery, due to these sorts of fees, Bitcoin's relevance will be gradually de-emphasized and eventually detached from the financial system by government decree—exactly as happened with gold in recent decades.

What went wrong

So how did this happen? The primary incentive for the growth of fractional reserve Bitcoin banks will come from any economies of scale in the costs of issuing transactions. So for instance, this applies where a service provider with a lot of capital can make transactions on behalf of its customers much more cheaply than the customers could themselves. Currently—or at least until very recently—no such economy of scale exists, primarily because there is currently no (well established) mechanism for aggregating multiple arbitrary payments into fewer or smaller blockchain transactions. With the Lightning Network however, heavily capitalized hubs will be able to make transactions at negligible marginal cost, while end users will need to spend a far larger relative chunk of their money opening and closing channels. As a result, there is an inescapable and huge economic incentive for hubs to act on behalf of their customers to issue transactions for them. This is fertile ground for hubs to then become banks, start up fractional reserve practices, dilute the money supply, gradually divert attention away from the underlying asset (Bitcoin) and ultimately detach it entirely from the financial system.

What can we do?

There are no doubt many clever ways to avert this possible future. One way is to ensure that the base layer is friction free. That is, we should aim to minimize the time and cost of on-chain transactions. This will leave no room for the growth of professional financial middlemen to re-emerge and reintroduce their bureaucracy, enforced mediation, censorship, monetary meddling, confiscation, counterfeiting, bailouts, bail-ins and wildly disproportionate influence and control they wield over the direction of the development of civilization.
Mining and node centralization has been explored in great detail. This certainly could become a problem too and we should try to guard against it. However we must not ignore the risks of centralization in higher levels, such as those within the Lightning Network.
submitted by frictionfreebase to btc [link] [comments]

I gave up investing more money into bitcoin after this "redlist" talk

For the first time I realize bitcoin might have a crucial flaw. Government might demand that transactions involve only greenlisted coins. It destroys bitcoins' fungibility and ranting alone won't stop it. I am deeply worried. What would Satoshi say? If only he came back to speak a few words... What do the coredevs have to say?
submitted by duduqa to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Hydro Quebec will allow large scale mining operations

Translated from French webiste using Google translate:
Original source:
The Couillard government will lift its moratorium on the sale of electricity to cryptocurrency miners, an energy-hungry industry that could absorb a large amount of Hydro-Québec's energy surplus, "Le Journal de Québec".
The Minister of Energy, Pierre Moreau, will present his colleagues today a decree that will regulate the sale of energy to minors bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies, a technology that requires powerful computers and energy-intensive, according to a well-informed source.
According to the information gathered by our Parliamentary Office, Quebec wants to avoid missing the ship cryptocurrency and can not wait.
The question is not insignificant. More than a hundred companies whose energy consumption exceeds 10 TWh have made requests to purchase electricity from Hydro-Québec. They are waiting for the end of the political impasse to have a response from the state corporation.
In comparison, Hydro-Québec's recurring surpluses are approximately 13 TWh, according to the data reported in the most recent Auditor General's report.
Hydro-Québec has never anticipated such an improvement. In January, CEO Eric Martel said in an interview with "Le Journal de Québec" that he planned to sell nearly 5 TWh to this sector in the coming years.
"This article has been translated by many sites specialized in cryptocurrency, it had circulated a lot. There was international media coverage, it gave an extra breath. At first, we say "it's fun, customers". But there is a point where there are too many requests, "notes Marc-Antoine Pouliot, spokesperson for Hydro-Québec.
"Forced offloading"
Pierre Moreau then put a stop and installed a quasi-moratorium. He said in February that "we must ensure that this type of business is controlled, so that Hydro-Québec does not see all of its production capacity absorbed".
Its decree, which will affect the Régie de l'énergie and Hydro-Québec, would set different rates for the mining of cryptocurrencies and would allow Hydro-Québec to do "forced load shedding", that is to say, to cut the food to these companies during the 100 to 300 hours per year when the Quebec power grid is at maximum capacity.
"Having interruptible customers during these critical periods makes it possible to connect more," said Hydro-Québec spokesman Marc-Antoine Pouliot, who can not confirm the content of the ministerial decree.
Hydro-Québec's mandate is "to ensure the implementation of cryptocurrencies in Quebec by maximizing economic benefits and ensuring the stability of our electricity supply." "We've been waiting a long time," says Pouliot.
The Coalition avenir Québec is asking the Couillard government to move for some time. "Minister Pierre Moreau is missing important investment projects for the province," said MP Chantale Soucy earlier this month.
More than 100 companies that consume more than 10 TWh await a response from Hydro-Québec.
Cryptocurrency drilling requires powerful computers to perform complex calculations in exchange for monetary gain. In the case of bitcoin, the best known of these cryptocurrencies, minors receive a small fraction of bitcoin.
Block-chain technology could revolutionize the storage and transmission of information.
submitted by haristourian to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Inflation Hits 100% Per Week In Venezuela, Currency Collapse Is Imminent, And There Is No Evidence That The Petro Is A Cryptocurrency

Inflation Hits 100% Per Week In Venezuela, Currency Collapse Is Imminent, And There Is No Evidence That The Petro Is A Cryptocurrency
The newly re-denominated Venezuelan fiat currency, the Sovereign Bolivar (VES), is supposed to be backed by the Petro, which is the official cryptocurrency of Venezuela. The government of Venezuela began the public sale of the Petro on 29 October 2018, and it has been over a month since then, but based on the accelerating hyperinflation it appears nothing at all is backing the VES. In-fact, there is no firm evidence that the Petro is an actual cryptocurrency, and is more likely a non-fungible paper certificate, as will be explained in the rest of this article.
The Cafe Con Leche Index, which measures Venezuelan inflation by buying the same cup of coffee at the same Venezuelan cafe at regular intervals, witnessed 100% inflation during the week of 28 November through 5 December. This is the most rapid inflation rate in Venezuela to date, and is an omen of an imminent currency collapse. The annual inflation rate that has been directly recorded by the Cafe Con Leche Index is 285,614%. This averages in the rest of the year which had a slower inflation rate. If 100% inflation per week continues, with no acceleration of the inflation rate, the cup of coffee will cost 400X(2^52) VES in one year, which equals VES 1,800,000,000,000,000,000. Clearly, a re-denomination cannot save the Bolivar this time around, and the Bolivar will soon cease to exist.
If the Petro actually was a real cryptocurrency, it would be a great mechanism to ensure that Venezuela continues to have a native currency even in the event the VES becomes unsalvageable. However, there is a litany of evidence which suggests the Petro is an ICO that never launched its coin. The Petro block explorer has no blocks and no transactions, only a block counter at the bottom which shows 3,707 blocks having been mined in about 5 weeks. The Petro white paper says the Petro is supposed to have 1 minute block times like Dash, and the block explorer is showing ~15 minute block times on average.There is a page to download the Petro wallet where it says click the image to download, but it displays the message “This wallet will be available soon for your operative system.” Since people cannot download the wallet and run a node, even from the official government website for the Petro, it seems unlikely there are any Petro nodes in the world.
The Petro white paper details how the Petro is backed by 50% oil, 20% gold, 20% iron, and 10% diamonds, and this is why the plan was to use the Petro to back the VES. However, there is no information available on the complex and secure infrastructure that would be needed to actually back the Petro with these mineral assets, and a deep dive study by Reuters found that the oil backing the Petro is simply the estimated reserves in an area with no oil infrastructure.
Another piece of damning evidence is that when the Petro public sale began, it was apparent that people were receiving paper certificates and not cryptocurrency. Further, President Maduro has declared that anyone who buys the Petro after 2018 ends cannot exchange the Petro for any fiat currency or cryptocurrency. This simply would not be possible if the Petro truly was an X11 cryptocurrency like the white paper indicates, since users would be able to exchange the Petro regardless of a government decree. The only way for the Venezuelan government to ban the trading of Petro purchased after the end of 2018 is if the Petro is a non-fungible paper certificate. This theory is further supported by the fact that President Maduro is setting the price for the Petro, indicating there is no free market exchange of the Petro.
All evidence points to the reality that the Petro is a non-fungible paper certificate, and is as easy to print as any other fiat currency, and has no attributes of a cryptocurrency. The Venezuelan government is accepting all sorts of fiat currencies, as well as Bitcoin and Litecoin, in exchange for the Petro, despite all of the evidence that the Petro is not a cryptocurrency like it is supposed to be. Effectively, this may be an ICO scam on a national level, occurring right as the native fiat currency of Venezuela nears the day when it will totally cease to be worth anything. The total collapse of the Bolivar will perhaps precipitate the collapse of the Venezuelan government, since they will no longer be able to fund their activities via money printing, and perhaps eventually it will be clear that the Petro is a last ditch attempt by the Maduro regime to earn a warchest of cash and cryptocurrency for the struggle that is inevitably coming.

submitted by turtlecane to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Cryptocurrencies are mixed as Kraken acquires European exchange for at least $100 million

Crypto Market Recap

Crypto Developments in Financial Services

Crypto Regulatory Environment

General Crypto News

submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining & The Beauty Of Capitalism

Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times,
While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish.
The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it?
Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback.
Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again.
As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap.
This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.

Time to Catch Up

What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure.
Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people.
The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers.
A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market.
And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress.
And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.

The Case For Mining

Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist.
For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year.
All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate.
So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified.
Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides?
This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human.

_Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply.
So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations.
If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too.
However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.

Different Money, Different Costs

How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks?
What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here.
Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions.
The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound.
In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money.
Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules.
Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble.
The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin.
And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation.

_The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network.
According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate.
According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year.
“Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing.
“I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times.
Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market.
The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential.
There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio.
It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals.
In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time.
In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.

The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining

But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity.
In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity
Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution.
Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy.
This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground.
All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them.
“The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.

Centralized Mining

But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory.
Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour.
This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity.
This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018.

Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“
They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative.
So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort.
This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017.
But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.

Northern Bitcoin Case Study

Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China.
But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered.
The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one.
Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow.
And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower.

A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas.
As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany.
The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.

Excess Power

In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity.
Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north.
“The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play.

A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground.
Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine.
Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine.
“We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.

Efficiency, Efficiency

Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient.
Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is.
Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice.
This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert.
But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes.
The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes.
The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord.
The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment.
To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.

_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics

Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed.
At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent.
Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc.
Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day.
But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this.
As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices.

Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers.
Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step.
The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway.
Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited.
The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.

Norway Powerhouse?

Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power.
But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out.
“Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.

A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade.
To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit.
The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space.
However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption.
Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively.
The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.”
Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions.
But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally.
However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM.
“It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.
Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world.
Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.”
Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.

Cheap Producer Advantage

At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall.
But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network.
Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk.
As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first.
As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example.
When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer.
However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them.
“The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December.
This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last.
And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system.
The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system. It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
submitted by rotoreuters to zerohedge [link] [comments]

What Makes Bitcoin So Special

What Makes Bitcoin So Special And why a “better” version of Bitcoin won’t replace it so easily
Bitcoin, an invention by the anonymous cypherpunk Satoshi Nakamoto is the worlds first successful cryptocurrency. Prior to Bitcoin it wasn’t possible to pay anyone on the internet without having intermediaries or middle men involved. Shortly after its introduction many variants of Bitcoin arrived on the scene called altcoins, with promises of faster confirmations, better scaling, better privacy features, and with more robust smart contract support. However Bitcoin holds far more value than any of the newcomers. Where does this value come from, and why do so many consider Bitcoin far superior? This article will explore some of the properties of bitcoin and how they come together to make something truly unique, and not very easy to duplicate.
There would be nothing special about Bitcoin if it were not decentralized. Its that its decentralized that gives it such appeal, nobody is in control, and that’s good. Its natural to want to solve problems by centralizing the solution, but as you do this you create centralized power, which is basically what bitcoin was invented to replace. Bitcoin was invented to be the peoples money, not a crypto PayPal.
Decentralization is not always black and white, or yes/no. It’s a scale, and this scale is always under constant pressure. Sometimes centralization attempts are hidden from view, disguised as scaling upgrades. Bitcoin has resisted these well-coordinated attacks on the network successfully.
Bitcoin was born in the wild of the cypherpunk internet back corners, and has grown decentralized from there organically. Its, still anonymous inventor (Satoshi Nakamoto) disappeared shortly after starting up the network, and since then the software that runs the nodes are developed and maintained by thousands of volunteers and contributors. Even its development is the most decentralized.
Decentralization also means there is nobody to ask permission to use it, nobody who can sensor it, no way to keep transactions inside real world borders, nobody who has ability to seize funds or reverse transactions, nobody to ask permission to start a new application or startup on it. These qualities are all features, not bugs.
Bitcoin has the highest overall level of decentralization among all cryptocurrencies.
One of Bitcoins most valuable properties is the immutability of its blockchain. To be immutable means it cannot be changed, and having an unchangeable ledger is something that has never been possible before bitcoin. This is where bitcoin and all of the other coins are different, none of the other coins or altcoins can claim to have a truly immutable ledger or blockchain. Bitcoins consensus algorithm is what regulates and controls how bitcoin works, and it’s very difficult to change consensus without all the interested parties agreeing. There is no president or founder who can wave their magic wand and force consensus changes upon the network like all the other altcoins have. There is no one person, or group of people who are in control of bitcoin, and that’s good.
A certain level of inertia in regards to the consensus algorithm exists in bitcoin that is beneficial to its immutability. You generally don’t want to have a system that can be changed very quickly on a whim containing Billions of USD worth of value. For instance, if it was decided by the miners that the mining reward needed to be doubled, such a proposal would be met with great resistance from the other interested parties, and would fail. (*Bitcoins interested parties include bitcoin holders, wallet software developers, miners, developers, merchants, application developers, and others. )
As a side effect, while bitcoin adoption grows it will be harder and harder to get network upgrades into consensus to support increased scaling, and improved privacy features that are on the developers roadmap. Eventually it will be impossible to change the consensus algorithm and it will be locked in stone.
*Bitcoin miners provide the processing power that secures the Bitcoin blockchain with 50,599,447,508,000,000(as of this writing) SHA256 Hashes Per Second. This hashing power significantly contributes to the security and immutability of the Bitcoin blockchain.
*To be able to keep a secure global immutable ledger without having any intermediaries involved is a tremendous advancement in modern financial technology.
*Participants in such a network should also expect reduced counter-party risk exposure.
Antifragility is a property of systems that increase in capability, resilience, or robustness as a result of stressors, shocks, volatility, noise, mistakes, faults, attacks, or failures. —
Bitcoin has been under constant attack ever since its early days. A network that, as of this writing, holds $110 billion in value makes for a big honeypot. As a result bitcoin has developed a certain immune system that continues to improve into the future.
One of the early fixes to the early bitcoin protocol was to make the script language turing incomplete, which means you cannot write very complex smart contracts on its blockchain. This was removed from the bitcoin protocol because it introduced a broad attack surface. The removal of turing complete scripts from bitcoin hardened it and protected it from many possible attacks. It was decided early in Bitcoins development that it would favor safety and security over flexibility. Many other adjustments have been enacted along the way in response to the constant barrage of attacks.
To say that bitcoin has survived and thrived in this environment is an understatement. Bitcoin has never once suffered a hack to its protocol, not once has an invalid transaction been included into the blockchain, not once has a transaction been reversed after suitably being recorded onto the blockchain. Sure, many have had there bitcoin hacked, but its important to know that all of those cases are of people being sloppy with their private keys. Bitcoin was not hacked, your keys were stolen. If you are sloppy with the combination to your safe, don’t be upset when you find it empty. Not your keys, not your bitcoin.
I expect that bitcoin will continue to adapt and evolve in response to future threats.
Bitcoin could possibly be the most scarce asset on earth. There will only ever be barely 21 million bitcoin in existence. Taking into account its decentralized nature, and its immutability, and the inert nature of its protocol development its hard to see this ever changing. With over 7 billion humans on earth, there are not many to go around. fortunately each of those bitcoin can be broken into 100,000,000 units called Satoshi.
Unlike gold when the demand for bitcoin quickly rises, the miners cannot just increase the supply in response to increased demand. There is no way to just mine more bitcoin in response to demand. This dynamic along with bitcoins schedule of diminishing mining rewards will contribute to its rarity as adoption grows. This could produce a market cap many multiples of where we are today in a short period of time.
Many of the altcoins have no coin cap, or have such weak security model that the cap can be changed by decree.
These properties are conducive to the bitcoin network being a great store of value outside the traditional monetary system.
The lightning Network
In early 2018 a second layer network on top of bitcoin began to run, the Lightning Network. This new network promises to solve many of the scaling challenges that are inherent with recording every single global transaction onto the blockchain. The Lightning Network basically allows for many off-chain transactions to take place that are periodically settled on-chain.
The Lightning Network also easily allows for micro transactions, streaming money applications, and a new kind of transaction called atomic swaps, swap Bitcoin for Litecoin without an exchange in a trustless environment. Many other applications are being built on top of the lightning network, many more still have not been thought up yet.
Further when making lightning transactions there is never a need to wait 10 minutes for transactions to confirm into a block, like you would when making regular on-chain bitcoin transactions.
With a good lightning wallet, and a few bucks worth of bitcoin in a payment channel you (And everyone else on earth) will be able to get that allusive cup of coffee every morning with bitcoin and not break the network.
The Lightning Network is just one of many possible layer 2 networks.There are also plans for a second layer network that will support rich ethereum style smart contracts (turing complete) with bitcoin(BTC) as the token. With all the new capabilities made possible by the 2017 segregated witness upgrade to bitcoin, its possible that many nich cryptocurrency applications could be handled on a second layer using bitcoin as its token.
In Conclusion
In modern-day times its natural to think that if something is brand new, just wait and a better, faster, cheaper version will be out soon enough. This is certainly a contributing factor to the allure of altcoins. However Bitcoin has developed in a way that may be impossible for it to be replaced. It seems that the really important properties don’t come along when its copied.
link to article on medium
submitted by merclyn to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Focus on the vision for Bitcoin, not just its price.

The purpose of this post is not to discourage enthusiasm over the recent appreciation of Bitcoin. Everyone here is excited, and rightly so. I’ve put this together because I think people are getting a bit caught up in price mania and losing sight of the bigger picture.
The ideas I’ve pulled together here are pretty condensed as it is, so unfortunately I have no TLDR. I don't claim to have a prophecy to share, or concrete answers to questions about where Bitcoin will go in the future -- nobody does. But that doesn't mean there's nothing to talk about.
I would suggest reading slowly and giving your imagination time to picture or "render" things. There is no other way to grasp Bitcoin.
Final preamble: I know there are people in this sub who are here just for the gains -- they freely admit it, and they laugh at how "true believers" will be left holding the bag when they sell. My hope is that those of you who feel this way will have an open mind. You might see things in a new light, who knows?
Here we go…
The Medium is the Message
In the 1960s, a Canadian professor named Marshall McLuhan became widely known for his thorough analysis of the evolution of communication technologies. His central precept was that communication technologies have dramatic effects on populations regardless of the content they carry at any particular moment. The radio, for example, allowed private microphones to broadcast to widely distributed speakers, which enabled the amplification of private viewpoints on a public scale. This had profound effects on society that played out regardless of what particular messages were carried over particular radio frequencies at particular times.
McLuhan’s famous aphorism, “The Medium is the Message,” is a distillation of this precept. In point form: 1) each new communication technology changes the environment into which it is introduced; and 2) the net effect of a technology over time is both far more interesting and harder to discern than the effect of any particular use of that technology or phase of its development. In other words, it is harder to see the forest for the trees, but seeing the forest is everything.
So: what effect will Bitcoin have on the world over the long run? What is the meaning of Bitcoin?
The Roman Model
To understand where we might be going, we have to first understand how we got to where we are. In the West, our societies are founded on the Classical traditions which were seeded in Ancient Greece and “scaled” so to speak in Ancient Rome. McLuhan had a lot to say about this from a technological point of view:
The development of writing on lightweight media such as papyrus and parchment enabled the externalization of knowledge. Thus, the oral traditions of Ancient Greece were subsumed and replaced by written traditions which were far less lossy and could be refined over time. Writing on lightweight media also enabled the centralized control of vast resources over large distances, which would have been impossible using engraved stone or oral communication. This was perfected by the Romans and thrown into overdrive by Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450.
In its abstract form, the Roman model takes the form of bureaucracy – hierarchical organization -- and this model has underpinned the structuring of society in the West for the past two thousand years. Look up "org chart" on Google Images if you can't picture one. Our societies are comprised of org charts within org charts within org charts -- try the following searches on Google Images: military org chart, bank org chart, government org chart, university org chart. Everything in our society is centralized, bureaucratized, and nested within the context of the nation state which is run by a central bureaucracy called the government, itself divided into departments within departments, orgs within orgs.
This is not to say that humans didn't organize hierarchically before ancient Rome -- of course they did, as do apes, dogs, chickens, etc. However, in a social hierarchy such as a tribe, there is a scale limit (Dunbar's number, 150) because each member must know his place and his role as well as the places and roles of all other members. The hierarchy lives inside its members' minds and looks more like a swarm than an org chart. Bitcoin is, of course, this type of network, where each node has full knowledge of the state of the network and participates in it voluntarily.
Bureaucracy, on the other hand, is based on the writing down of roles (job descriptions) and makes people interchangeable. There is no limit to scale as long as you map everything out carefully (management). The lifeblood of bureaucracy is the transmission of written forms of information (paper-pushing) from the center to the periphery along defined, linear routes. Each node receives its orders, performs its specialized role, delegates if the role requires it, and then awaits new orders. Privilege and planning are concentrated near the center -- as is risk.
These structures are inherently fragile and collapsible. If you undermine a high-value node as happened in the collapse of Lehman Brothers, the whole edifice collapses. The entire global financial system barely withstood the collapse of a single American bank - it is that fragile.
Each nation's banking system is likewise a matrix of bureaucracies operating as a single, hierarchical supply chain whose product (the national currency) flows outward from a central node (the central bank) through successively less privileged nodes (investment and commercial banks) down to the level of branches and ATMs. At each level of the banking system, additional product is created and loaned out (credit/debt) using the productfrom the level above as a stake (fractional reserve lending). The banking systems are insulated from competition by governments through the decree that taxes must be paid in national currencies. And to keep the currencies moving, everyone is raised from birth to want more and then given the appearance of more through the creation of more by fiat, meaning by arbitrary decree, without any necessary connection to the creation of new wealth. This is inflation: the steady creation of new money to repay debt and keep the show going. It is a Ponzi scheme by design, and it relies the continued "buying-in" of young people in order to survive.
Each national currency has value and utility only by decree and only within that nation's cell in the global mosaic. To move value from one nation to the next requires snaking it through tenuous international pathways, paying entrenched gatekeepers, and exchanging one national currency for another. You have to be somebody to access the banking system. The more somebody you are, the more access you get. It is principally through control of economic access that strong nations bully weaker ones, rich people bully poorer ones. There is tremendous pent up tension in our world as a result. This is where we are.
The Center Cannot Hold
McLuhan predicted that the advent of the electronic age and the emergence of global communication networks would lead to the dissolution of these centralized, bureaucratic structures from the bottom up. He died before the spread of the Internet but described the end result with crystal clarity in his writings. His vision of an interconnected world, which he called the "Global Village," is here now. Every person has the ability to broadcast information to others in their networks over the Internet. If a transmission is perceived as having sufficient value, the receiving people pass it on, and so on. Above a certain threshold of significance, transmissions are repeated by all people to all other people: this is virality and there is nothing that institutions can do to harness or stop it. The Arab Spring for example brought down an array of national governments in a span of months.
Like a rising tide, global communication networks are bringing about an inevitable dissolution of the Roman model all around us: the music industry was upended by Napster; newspapers are being displaced by twitter and blogs; radio stations are being displaced by podcasts; broadcasters are being displaced by Netflix and YouTube; brick-and-mortar stores are being displaced by Amazon and eBay; AirBnb is gobbling up rental supply; traditional transportation services are being displaced by Uber; and now decentralized currencies are coming after centralized ones. Quoting W.B. Yates: “Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.”
It is important to realize that even though the post-Dot-Com networks like Facebook and eBay were more effective than their institutional predecessors, they are still quite fragile since they are centralized. They can be hacked, compromised, back-doored, subpoenaed, or otherwise shut down. In contrast, a truly decentralized network is perfectly flat and impossible to shut down. The music industry could kill Napster by going after Sean Parker, but it cannot touch BitTorrent. True decentralization, at scale, is one of the principal reasons why Bitcoin is secure: whatever it becomes, it cannot be stopped because there is no center to hold, and nothing to attack.
At this point, I think it makes sense to explain how Bitcoin works, and why it has value. If those questions can't be answered clearly, there's no basis for thinking Bitcoin will disrupt traditional banking. I do, however, think there are very good answers to those questions which I'll try to present below.
Bitcoin and Blockchain
Imagine you live in a pre-historic tribe of ten people. As a group, you need to find a way to keep track of who did what work, and in what quantity. In other words, you need an abstract “work unit” that can be traded for work and held for use in future exchanges. You could use shiny rocks or something else similarly rare, but people would still be able to cheat the system: why do actual work if you can simply go on a hunt in the forest and find new rocks?
One solution is to create a ledger or list that keeps track of how many rocks each person has. If the ledger is the authority on who has what, people would not be able to inflate their balances by introducing new rocks or other work units from outside the system. The problem is, everyone has to trust the keeper of the ledger. If only one entity maintains the ledger, they ultimately control how much money everyone has (banks).
Decentralization is the solution to this problem. You can write down ten copies of the ledger and distribute a copy to each person in the tribe. At the end of the day, everyone could cross-check the transactions that took place with everyone else and a consensus could be formed about who has what without appealing to a central authority.
Eventually, the people might realize that the rocks themselves are unnecessary, and that it is actually the ledger that is important. The rocks, like all currencies, are meant to track work. If a ledger is already doing that, the rocks themselves become extraneous. The actual units of currency are the work units on the ledger. And if everyone agrees to use the same ledger, its work units have value.
The blockchain is that ledger and Bitcoin is its work unit.
Proof of Work
In the illustration above we can see that the utility of a blockchain is that it enables distributed peers to prove to each other that they have done work, and to trade their work units freely without appealing to a trusted intermediary. The obvious next question is: what proof do we have that we can trust the Bitcoin blockchain?
Bitcoin mining is based on a Proof of Work consensus mechanism. To put this as simply as I can, each and every mining node on the network is competing against the rest of the network to generate a small piece of data that proves it has performed an enormous number of computer operations using a batch of new, valid transactions as an input. The amount of work that it takes to successfully mine Bitcoin is dictated by how much computer power has voluntarily joined the mining network - and this is adjusted dynamically as miners enter and leave the network. Each operation requires a tiny bit of electricity since a computer must perform it, so as the difficulty of the Proof of Work operation scales, so too does the cost of generating it.
As of writing, the Bitcoin network is collectively performing about 8,250,000,000,000,000,000 operations per second, and it takes an average of about ten minutes worth of this grind for a single node on the network to successfully produce an acceptable proof of work and add a block of transactions to the blockchain. The winning node is awarded new Bitcoin by including a transaction in its block that credits its own wallet -- now we understand mining.
So you want to be a Bitcoin miner? Let's say you have a powerful gaming computer that can perform about 100,000 Bitcoin computer operations per second (a realistic amount by the way). It would have roughly a 1 in 82.5 quintillion chance of mining a block if you were to enter it into the mining race today. If you had a stack of 1000 of these gaming computers your odds of mining a block would improve to roughly 1 in 82.5 quadrillion. A million of them? 1 in 82.5 billion. Etc. Miners use specialize hardware to perform the computer operations, but the point still stands: it takes a staggering amount of computer power and thus a staggering amount of electricity to "get a word in" on the Bitcoin blockchain.
But let's say you get lucky and are able to generate a proof of work. That proof of work will be tied inexorably to whatever batch of transactions you are trying to add to the blockchain since those transactions were part of the input of the computer operation. Your transactions must be valid or else the rest of the network would reject your work. You wouldn’t be able to double-spend, create Bitcoin by fiat, or spend from balances that you don’t have the keys for. The network would reject your block.
The larger and more distributed the mining network is, the more cost-prohibitive it is to compromise it. In other words: the more people you have checking the ledger from different nations and backgrounds, the harder it is to override the distributed, international consensus. And that is why the Bitcoin blockchain can be trusted. It is audited by the largest computer network ever assembled and requires that an attacker control at least 51% of the network on a sustained basis.
The Open Blockchain
As more and more people use a blockchain, its units (e.g. Bitcoin) become more valuable. As the price of the base unit increases, it becomes more profitable to mine them at the prevailing level of difficulty, so more miners join the network. As more miners join the network, the level of difficulty increases and thus the robustness and security of the network increases. As the robustness of the network increases, it becomes more secure against attackers, so more users and investors are drawn to it. And so the price of the base unit increases. Which draws in more miners. Etc.
The adoption of a blockchain, like the adoption of any currency, is a virtuous circle -- one that Bitcoin has been nurturing successfully for nine years without any existential catastrophes. Bitcoin's heartbeat, the mining of a new block every ten minutes, has not skipped a single beat in nine years. There has not been a successful double-spend in nine years. There has not been a single accounting error in nine years. No balance has been mysteriously wiped off the blockchain in nine years. This track record has been established despite the fact that the blockchain is not protected by a firewall, or an institution, or shielded in a vault. It is not buried underground, or protected by obfuscation. It is out there in the wild of cyberspace for all to see and attack, secured purely by Proof of Work and sheer scale.
Bitcoin itself is valuable because it is the only work unit that can be included in a block of this particular, special blockchain: the open, global, transnational, borderless, censorship-resistant, permissionless, leaderless, most well-known, longest-running, and most-well-capitalized blockchain (credit to andreasma for this and many other insights). Because work units on this blockchain are scarce (per the 21-million cap), having the ability to sign for transfers of Bitcoin on the blockchain is a form of real control over scarce resources.
This is the pivotal point: to the degree that people around the world adopt and learn to trust the Bitcoin blockchain, its work units will have value. And it is Bitcoin's openness in particular that makes it the prime candidate for filling this role. Any computer on the planet can join the mining swarm at any time, just as anyone can join the network as a user, at any time, from any location. Even the Bitcoin development community is open-source and open to new developers provided they can prove their merits.
This is what is meant by The Open Blockchain: the Bitcoin blockchain is accessible everywhere and is open to anyone. It is welcoming. It enables people from different cells in the global mosaic to transact point-to-point, without snaking value through complicated interbank networks, without paying entrenched gatekeepers and intermediaries, and without having to convert from one currency to the next. If a country experiences a currency crisis, Bitcoin is a very real option because it enables people to transfer value out of hot spots and convert it into other currencies. The international monetary system is no match for this technology. Private blockchains are no match either.
Bitcoin’s Monetary Policy
Bitcoin is commonly referred to as "digital gold" since it is designed to function like a precious metal. The creation of new units follows something like the extraction curve of a natural resource. The issuance of new coins was steep at first but will taper off over time through successive “halvings” of the reward that miners receive for creating new blocks. Eventually, the issuance of new coins will approach an asymptotic limit of 21 million coins.
At each "halving", the rate of inflation is effectively cut in half, though it decreases ever so slightly with each new block. The current rate of inflation is about 4%. At the next halving in 2020, the inflation rate will be about 2%. In 2024, 1%. Etc.
The world has never before had access to a truly deflationary asset. Even currencies considered deflationary such as the Japanese Yen are not truly deflationary: the government can print an infinite amount even though deflation in Japan has inertia. Gold is not deflationary: new gold is mined every year. Bitcoin will eventually become truly deflationary, meaning the supply of available Bitcoins will contract year over year consistently. How is this possible, if there is no provision to destroy coins in the protocol?
There is guaranteed to be a year sometime in the future where more coins are lost due to people losing their keys than new coins are created. It will happen. As the miner reward decreases, years like this will become more common. In the distant future, decades will go by where every year is deflationary, and eventually it will be practically impossible for the supply of Bitcoin to not decrease in a given year.
Here is Bitcoin’s golden proposition: because it the first truly deflationary asset, it does not require interest payments or a never-ending influx of greater fools in order to provide a “yield” over the very long run. In the distant future, Bitcoin will have a low but predictable intrinsic expected return approximating its rate of deflation, as long as it remains secure.
When you combine Bitcoin's monetary policy with its robustness through distributed Proof of Work on a planetary scale, you end up with the basis for a global reserve asset more effective than anything else humans have ever had a chance to work with, including gold. Gold is modestly inflationary, it cannot be transmitted over a network, and it must be centrally secured and accounted for. Bitcoin has already obsolesced gold as a reserve technology, let alone Ponzi currencies like the dollar - most just don't know it yet. As people come to really understand Bitcoin’s monetary policy, they will flock to it as a safe haven, especially in troubled economies. If we have another 2008, Bitcoin will be very much in play.
Bitcoin as Money
People argue that Bitcoin's deflationary policy, high fees, and volatility make it ineffective as a medium of exchange. If you can expect a Bitcoin to be more valuable next year, why spend it this year? If it costs $20 in fees to buy a $3 coffee, who will use or accept it? If its value can double in a day, who will set prices in terms of Bitcoin exclusively? The truth is, Bitcoin is not yet ready for mass adoption as a day to day currency or unit of account. Anyone who tells you otherwise is getting ahead of the technology -- but this is temporary.
Just as the early Internet could only handle the transfer of simple text-based content but eventually scaled to allow everyone to stream 4k at the same time, so too Bitcoin will scale. The Lightning Network shows promise in this regard. It will enable and incentivize users to stake their Bitcoin on a second layer where payments are negotiated in a trustless manner between parties, instantly, and merely settled periodically on the blockchain. But even with today’s block congestion and high fees, Bitcoin is already cheaper and more efficient for large transfers of value than the banking system, especially internationally. People transfer hundreds of millions of dollars on the blockchain, securely, today.
Regarding volatility, we are still in the very early phases of adoption. Something like 10-20 million people own Bitcoin worldwide. Because the supply of Bitcoin cannot inflate to accommodate increased adoption, prices will continue to escalate in logarithmic fits and starts as adoption ramps up exponentially. Look up "adoption curve" on Google. We are still in the very early phases of the ramp-up, but eventually the curve will taper off and approach something like stability. We do not know how this will play out or how long it will take, and there will be serious volatility along the way; but if Bitcoin scales into a robust transnational currency trading on thousands or tens of thousands of exchanges worldwide, it will likely become more stable than most national currencies if not all.
Regarding deflation: over time, we will likely see new innovative uses of Bitcoin as a reserve for credit creation. People are clearly willing to operate in systems that use reserve-based lending, and they can work wonderfully: look at what humans accomplished in the 20th century! It is conceivable that Bitcoin could be used as a reserve for distributed, trustless, bank-like networks that issue their own tokens. We may end up using a modestly-inflationary cryptocurrency for day-to-day transactions and investment. There’s no way to know what people will come up with, but they will come up with things. And that is why Bitcoin must stay laser-focused on its role as the de facto reserve currency in the crypto-economy.
A Vision Statement for Bitcoin
Tying everything together: over the course of thousands of years, we have built our societies around the use of hierarchical principles of organization. These structures centralize control and privilege, but also risk. They are fragile. Too big to fail.
The invention and proliferation of the Internet paved the way for the dissolution of these structures, and over the past twenty years we have seen countless examples of entrenched institutions being wiped out by flatter, more effective networks.
Now we are seeing the early evolution of global, distributed, cryptographic value storage and transfer networks which will slowly displace traditional banking systems by offering faster, cheaper, more reliable routes, with better systemic risk profiles, infinitely better security, no access controls, and no entrenched monopolistic privileges over money creation.
Bitcoin was the first mover in this space and remains the incumbent. It is a global, secure, consensus-based currency that was bootstrapped from the ground up by ordinary people volunteering to participate in its development, mining, and use. It has grown exponentially in size since its inception, to the point where it is now upheld by the largest dedicated computer network in the world. Because it is secured principally by its unmatched scale, it is therefore the most secure accounting system in the world, which in turn makes the entries in its ledger the most trustworthy on the planet. If you can sign for a Bitcoin in the network’s eyes, you own it -- and nobody can stop you from owning it or signing for it.
Bitcoin is here, now. It is in the air all around us, accessible over wifi and cellular networks around the globe -- anywhere the Internet touches. The next time you walk down the street, look at the people around you. As they move through the air, displacing it with their bodies, recognize that they are literally wading through the Bitcoin network -- they just don't know it yet.
Suggestions for New People
1) Focus first and foremost on the vision and take an interest in the technology. I have a friend who is talking about putting $20k into Bitcoin, yet only a few nights ago he didn't know that Bitcoin isn't a company, or that a block isn't a single transaction. I have another friend who owns a whole Bitcoin but has never initiated a transaction. A co-worker of mine just bought $100 worth of Bitcoin but doesn't know that a wallet is key management software.
2) Bitcoin is an experiment with no precedent. Nobody knows if it will survive, what it will evolve into, or how it will be used. Even with its long-running track record, nobody can say with prophetic certainty that it won't suffer a catastrophic failure of some kind, so put only as much money into Bitcoin as you can afford to lose. I would offer the following as a good rule of thumb: if you have a negative net worth (meaning your debts exceed your assets) be very cautious with Bitcoin, and at the very least do not increase your debt to buy Bitcoin. If you have a positive net worth, do not go negative to buy Bitcoin. Having said all this, do keep in mind that any currency can suffer a catastrophic failure, including the US Dollar. Remember 2008. Don’t fall for illusions of security. We are all sailing in little boats on a big sea. Diversify.
3) If you believe in Bitcoin, try not to obsess over the value of Bitcoin in fiat terms, as tempting as it is. Try to conceptualize its value on the basis of its potential utility in emerging decentralized networks and look for ways to use it in these new emerging ecosystems. Look up OpenBazaar for example - it could be the new eBay without an eBay acting as an intermediary. I strongly believe that owning Bitcoin is exciting because it sets you up to have a stake in this emerging ecosystem. If your aim is to eventually get your value out of Bitcoin in the form of fiat, you’ll be giving up that stake. If you don't care about having a stake and are here just for the gains, that's perfectly fine too.
4) Learn how to take possession of your private keys. If you don't know what that means or how to do it, learn what it means and how to do it. Until you can say with confidence "I alone own my private keys", you do not actually own Bitcoin and you do not have a stake. Someone else owns it for you. It took me two years of owning Bitcoin before I actually clued in and took control of my own, and that is what forced me to take on the Bitcoin learning curve. The good news is, you can too.
(Edit: formatting)
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Next Bitcoin Diamond (BCD) Review: Everything You Need To Know. Explore; Menu; Menu; Mining. Finding The Best Decred Pools: Complete Beginners Guide . Steve Walters on July 24, 2018. Decred (DCR) was one of the first privacy focused coins, and was released in February 2016. Since then we’ve seen many changes in cryptocurrencies and the mining and trading of coins and tokens. Back in 2016 ... The post San Marino Ratifies Blockchain Decree appeared first on This entry was posted in Alessandro Palombo , Bitcoin News , Blockchain , blockchain decree , News , regulations , San Marino Innovation , Sara Noggler on June 7, 2019 by adminbtc . About Decred. Decred price today is $12.38 USD with a 24-hour trading volume of $3,030,377 USD. Decred is down 0.65% in the last 24 hours. The current CoinMarketCap ranking is #73, with a market cap of $150,723,200 USD. Bitcoin-Miner halten mehr Münzen als vor zwei Jahren, obwohl der Preis weiterhin auf 11.400 US-Dollar begrenzt ist. Bergleute im Bitcoin-Netzwerk sind zunehmend optimistisch in Bezug auf die potenziellen langfristigen Gewinne der Top-Kryptowährung, die aus Brieftaschenadressen zusammengestellt wurden. Dies geschieht trotz des BTC-Preises, der darum kämpft, über 11.500 USD zu bleiben und ... Calculate Decred (DCR) mining profitability in realtime based on hashrate, power consumption and electricity cost. DCR exchange rates, mining pools.

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